adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 solar red steel grey release date adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 release date adidas yeezy boost retailers availability 2016 yeezy boost 350 pirate black release details everything you need to know about the adidas yeezy boost 350 moonrock release adidas yeezy boost 350 pirate black ii yeezy boost 350 grey brand new in box adidas yeezy 350 boost black adidas yeezy yeezy boost complete release info greyorange yeezy boost 350 v2 adidas yeezy 350 boost low adidas yeezy 350 boost adidas yeezy 350 boost black release date yeezy boost 350 oxford tan links is the adidas yeezy boost 350 turtle dove releasing again adidas yeezy 350 boost yeezy kanye west yeezy boost adidas yeezy boost 350 pirate black restock details
adidas eqt adv support primeknit black white adidas eqt adv support primeknit adidas eqt adv support primeknit adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv green camo adidas eqt support adv camo pack first look adidas eqt support adv shadow available now adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv primeknit black white adidas eqt support 93 winter wool release date adidas eqt support 93 winter wool release date adidas eqt running support 93 winter wool adidas eqt support 93 boost winter 2016 releases adidas eqt adv 91 16 art basel adidas eqt support adv art basel miami adidas eqt adv 91 16 art basel

Capsaspora owczarzaki

Capsaspora cellsThe amoeboid protist Capsaspora owczarzaki occupies a key position to understand animal origins. It is a member of the Filasterea, that is the sister-group to Choanoflagellatea and Metazoa (Torruella et al.2012 and 2015).

 

Capsaspora was originally described as an amoeba-like “symbiont” of the fresh-water mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata (Stibbs and Owczarzak 1979; Owczarzak et al. 1980). The amoebae were obtained from the pericardial explants and mantle swabs of snails originally sampled in Puerto Rico. Capsaspora was originally described as nucleariids (Owczarzak et al. 1980). However, later molecular ribosomal phylogenies placed Capsaspora somewhere closer to animals than the rest of nucleariids (Zettler et al. 2001; Hertel et al. 2002; Medina et al. 2003). Finally, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis with several opisthokont taxa clearly showed that Capsaspora is not a nucleariid, but part of the Holozoa (Ruiz-Trillo et al. 2004; Ruiz-Trillo et al. 2006). This was later on corroborated by phylogenomic analyses (Ruiz-Trillo et al. 2008, Shalchian-Tabrizi 2008), one of which (Shalchian-Tabrizi) situated it as sister-group to Ministeria forming the Filasterea clade.

 

The  life cycle of Capsaspora has recently been reported (Sebé-Pedrós et al. 2013). Under culture conditions, Capsaspora cells crawls attached at the substrate, with active replication until the end of the exponential growth phase. Then cells start to detach retracting the branching filopodia and encysting. During this cystic phase, division is stopped. Alternatively, amoebae can actively aggregate to each other by unknown factors, forming a multicellular, aggregative structure and secreting an unstructured extracellular material that seems to prevent direct cell-cell contact.

 

Due to its important phylogenetic position as close unicellular relative of animals, the genome, transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome of Capsaspora has been obtained and analyzed (Suga et al. 2013, Sebe-Pedrós et al. 2103,  Sebe-Pedrós et al. 2106a,b). Overall Capsaspora has resulted pivotal to unravel the nature of the unicellular ancestor of animal, which was genetically much more complex than previously thought.
References
-Hertel, L. A., Bayne, C. J., & Loker, E. S. (2002). The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea. Int J Parasitol, 32(9), 1183–1191.
-Medina, M., Collins, A. G., Taylor, J. W., Valentine, J. W., Lipps, J. H., Amaral-Zettler, L., & Sogin, M. L. (2003). Phylogeny of Opisthokonta and the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in Fungi and Metazoa. Int. J. Astrobiol., 2, 203–211.
-Owczarzak, A., Stibbs, H. H., & Bayne, C. J. (1980). The destruction of Schistosoma mansoni mother sporocysts in vitro by amoebae isolated from Biomphalaria glabrata: an ultrastructural study. J Invertebr Pathol, 35(1), 26–33.
-Stibbs, H. H., Owczarzak, A., Bayne, C. J., & DeWan, P. (1979). Schistosome sporocyst-killing Amoebae isolated from Biomphalaria glabrata. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 33(2), 159–170.
-Torruella, G., Derelle, R., Paps, J., Lang, B. F., Roger, A. J., Shalchian-Tabrizi, K., & Ruiz-Trillo, I. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships within the Opisthokonta based on phylogenomic analyses of conserved single-copy protein domains. Mol Biol Evol, 29(2), 531–544. http://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr185
-Torruella, G., de Mendoza, A., Grau-Bové, X., Antó, M., Chaplin, M. A., del Campo, J., et al. (2015). Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi. Current Biology : CB, 25(18), 2404–2410. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.053
-Ruiz-Trillo, I., Inagaki, Y., Davis, L. A., Sperstad, S., Landfald, B., & Roger, A. J. (2004). Capsaspora owczarzaki is an independent opisthokont lineage. Curr Biol, 14(22), R946–947.
-Ruiz-Trillo, I., Lane, C. E., M, A. J., & Roger, A. J. (2006). Insights into the evolutionary origin and genome architecture of the unicellular opisthokonts Capsaspora owczarzaki and Sphaeroforma arctica. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 53(5), 1–6.
-Ruiz-Trillo, I., Roger, A. J., Burger, G., Gray, M. W., & Lang, B. F. (2008). A phylogenomic investigation into the origin of metazoa. Mol Biol Evol, 25(4), 664–672.
-Sebe-Pedros, A., Irimia, M., del Campo, J., Parra-Acero, H., Russ, C., Nusbaum, C., et al. (2013). Regulated aggregative multicellularity in a close unicellular relative of metazoa. Elife, 2, e01287. http://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
-Shalchian-Tabrizi, K., Minge, M. A., Espelund, M., Orr, R., Ruden, T., Jakobsen, K. S., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2008). Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals. PLoS ONE, 3(5), e2098.
-Sebé-Pedrós, A., Ballaré, C., Parra-Acero, H., Chiva, C., Tena, J. J., Sabidó, E., et al. (2016). The Dynamic Regulatory Genome of Capsaspora and the Origin of Animal Multicellularity. Cell, 165(5), 1224–1237. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.034
-Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau, Marcia Ivonne Peña, Salvador Capella-Gutiérrez, Meritxell Antó, Toni Gabaldón, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo & Eduard Sabidó. (2016). High-Throughput Proteomics Reveals the Unicellular Roots of Animal Phosphosignaling and Cell Differentiation. Developmental Cell 39 (2): p186–197.
-Suga, H., Chen, Z., de Mendoza, A., Sebe-Pedros, A., Brown, M. W., Kramer, E., et al. (2013). The Capsaspora genome reveals a complex unicellular prehistory of animals. Nat Commun, 4, 2325. http://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3325
-Zettler, L., Nerad, T. A., O’Kelly, C. J., & Sogin, M. L. (2001). The nucleariid amoebae: more protists at the animal-fungal boundary. J Eukaryot Microbiol, 48(3), 293–297.
adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 red stripe adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 red adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black red adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 red stripe adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black red release date yeezy boost 350 v2 black red by9612 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black olive release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 blackwhite releases tomorrow adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 release date info adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black olive adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black green release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black green release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 by9611 adidas confirms months yeezy boost 350 v2 releases adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black copper release date yeezy boost 350 v2 red copper green yeezy boost 350 v2 black copper by1605 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 copper release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 belugasolar red another look