adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 solar red steel grey release date adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 release date adidas yeezy boost retailers availability 2016 yeezy boost 350 pirate black release details everything you need to know about the adidas yeezy boost 350 moonrock release adidas yeezy boost 350 pirate black ii yeezy boost 350 grey brand new in box adidas yeezy 350 boost black adidas yeezy yeezy boost complete release info greyorange yeezy boost 350 v2 adidas yeezy 350 boost low adidas yeezy 350 boost adidas yeezy 350 boost black release date yeezy boost 350 oxford tan links is the adidas yeezy boost 350 turtle dove releasing again adidas yeezy 350 boost yeezy kanye west yeezy boost adidas yeezy boost 350 pirate black restock details
adidas eqt adv support primeknit black white adidas eqt adv support primeknit adidas eqt adv support primeknit adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv camo pack adidas eqt support adv green camo adidas eqt support adv camo pack first look adidas eqt support adv shadow available now adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv shadow adidas eqt support adv primeknit black white adidas eqt support 93 winter wool release date adidas eqt support 93 winter wool release date adidas eqt running support 93 winter wool adidas eqt support 93 boost winter 2016 releases adidas eqt adv 91 16 art basel adidas eqt support adv art basel miami adidas eqt adv 91 16 art basel

Parvularia atlantis

Parvularia atlantis was isolated from a lake in Atlanta (Georgia, US) and deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) under the name Nuclearia sp. ATCC 50694  on 1997 by TK Sawyer. It was classified under the genus Nuclearia because it is a filopodiated amoeba and morphologically resembles to Nuclearia species, although it is smaller (the diameter of the cell body measures approximateley 4µm compared to Nuclearia species, which range between 9-60µm). In the MCG lab we have thoroughly studied this species and we found out that it phylogenetically belongs to a new nucleariid lineage, distantly related to Nuclearia and Fonticula genera –the other two previously described nucleriid genera–.

Thus, Parvularia atlantis emerged as a new genus and a new species at the onset of Holomycota, which contain a set of phylogenetic and morphological characteristics that make this species unique. P. atlantis feeds on rod-shaped bacteria and present uni- or bi- nucleated cells. During its life cycle, P. atlantis can form sphaerical cystic cells which cointain an embedded extracellular coat. P. atlantis is not the first case in which a filopodiated amoeba was misassigned to the Nuclearia genera. The amoeba Capsaspora owczarzaki was previously described as well as a Nuclearia (Owczarzak et al. 1980), until phylogenetic approaches placed Capsapsora outside Holomycota, within Holozans (Amaral-Zettler et al. 2001; Hertel et al. 2002; Medina et al. 2003; Ruiz-Trillo et al. 2004, 2006). For more details on Parvularia atlantis biology, check out our publication describing the new genus and species (López-Escardó et al. 2017).

Currently, we are obtaining its genomic sequence,  which will allow us to better understand the evolution of Opisthokonta and Holomycota. However, its transcriptomic data is already available, and it has been used in previous studies of the lab (de Mendoza et al. 2013; Suga et al. 2014; Torruella et al. 2015).

References:

Amaral-Zettler LA, Nerad T a., O’Kelly CJ, Sogin ML (2001) The nucleariid amoebae: more protists at the animal-fungal boundary. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 48, 293–297.

Hertel LA, Loker ES, Bayne CJ (2002) The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea. International Journal for Parasitology, 32, 1183–1191.

López-Escardó D, López-García P, Moreira D, Ruiz-Trillo I, Torruella G (2017) Parvularia atlantis gen. et sp. nov., a Nucleariid Filose Amoeba (Holomycota, Opisthokonta). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 1–10.

Medina M, Collins AG, Taylor JW et al. (2003) Phylogeny of Opisthokonta and the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in Fungi and Metazoa. International Journal of Astrobiology, 2, 203–211.

de Mendoza A, Sebé-Pedrós A, Šestak MS et al. (2013) Transcription factor evolution in eukaryotes and the assembly of the regulatory toolkit in multicellular lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 1–9.

Owczarzak A, Stibbs HH, Bayne CJ (1980) The destruction of Schistosoma mansoni mother sporocysts in vitro by amoebae isolated from Biomphalaria glabrata: an ultrastructural study. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 35, 26–33.

Ruiz-Trillo I, Inagaki Y, Davis LA, Landfald B, Roger AJ (2004) Capsaspora owczarzaki is an independent opisthokont lineage. Current Biology, 14, 946–947.

Ruiz-Trillo I, Lane CE, Archibald JM, Roger AJ (2006) Insights into the evolutionary origin and genome architecture of the unicellular opisthokonts Capsaspora owczarzaki and Sphaeroforma arctica. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 53, 379–384.

Suga H, Torruella G, Burger G, Brown MW, Ruiz-Trillo I (2014) Earliest holozoan expansion of phosphotyrosine signaling. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31, 517–528.

Torruella G, De Mendoza A, Grau-Bové X et al. (2015) Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi. Current Biology, 25, 2404–2410.

 

adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 red stripe adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 red adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black red adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 red stripe adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black red release date yeezy boost 350 v2 black red by9612 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black olive release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 blackwhite releases tomorrow adidas yeezy 350 boost v2 release date info adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black olive adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black green release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black green release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 by9611 adidas confirms months yeezy boost 350 v2 releases adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 black copper release date yeezy boost 350 v2 red copper green yeezy boost 350 v2 black copper by1605 adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 copper release date adidas yeezy boost 350 v2 belugasolar red another look